99 - Berkelium
20 ng of berkelium oxide. (1)
Berkelium compound visible as the small gold spot (arrow). (2)
First berkelium metal sample (about 1.7 ug). (3)
BkF4 in a tungsten spiral.
This is reduced with lithium vapor to yield berkelium metal. (4)
Simulated colors of Bk (III) hydroxide [left] and Bk (IV) hydroxide [right].
The original pictures were printed in black and white, with color descriptions as 'mint green' and
'bright yellow'. I colorized the black and white pictures to try and approximate this description.
The bubbles in the Bk (III) picture are due to the reducing agent needed to keep this oxidation state.
Otherwise, it decomposes. (5)
Back to elements
1 - "Matter", Ralph E. Lapp and the editors of LIFE, LIFE
Science Library, 1965.
2 - "Matter", Ralph E. Lapp and the editors of LIFE, LIFE Science Library. A newer edition than 1965, I don't know which year.
3 - Copied from "Die Metalle", p. 74. Photo credited to Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Thanks to David Keim for the reference.
4 - R. G. Haire, "Preparation of transplutonium metals and compounds", p 309-342, printed in "Actinides in Perspective", N.M. Edelstein ed., Pergamon Press, 1981.
5 - D. Cohen, "Oxidation-reduction reactions of the transuranium elements", J. inorg. nucl. Chem., Supplement 1976. Printed in "Proceedings of the Moscow symposium on the Chemistry of Transuranium Elements", V. Spitsyn, J. Katz ed., Pergamon Press, 1972.